• Shamir, H.M., Horowitz, I.H., Yakobson, B., Ofri, R., (1998)
    Arnold-Chiari malformation in a captive African lion cub. J Wildl Dis.; 34:661-6 abstract
  • Shamir, H.M., Shilo, Y., Fridman, A., Chai, O., Reifen, R., Miara, L. (2008).
    Sub-occipital craniectomy in a lion (Panthera leo) with occipital bone malformation and hypovitaminosis A. J Zoo Wildl Med, 39:455-9 abstract
  • Gross-Tsubery, R., Chai, O., Shilo, Y., Miara, L., Horowitz, I.H., Shmueli, A., Aizenberg, I., Hoffman,C., Reifen, R., Shamir, H.M. (2010).
    Computed tomographic analysis of calvarial hyperostosis in captive lions. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 51:34-8. abstract
  • Shamir, H.M., Rubin, G., Aizenberg, Z., Berkovitz, Z,. Reifen, R., Horowitz, I., Bdolah-Abram, T., and Aroch, I., (2012).
    Needle biopsy for hepatic vitamin A levels in lions (Panthera Leo). J. Zoo Wildl Med abstract
  • Saragusty, J., Nadler, R., Shavit-Meyrav, A ., Yamaguchi,N., Bdolah-Abram,., Gibeon, L., Shamir, H.M. (2014).
    Comparative Skull Analysis Suggests Species-Specific Captivity-Related Malformation in Lions (Panthera leo). PLoS One, 2014 Apr 9(4):e 94527 abstract
  • Bauer, H, Nowell K. & Packer C.
    Panthera leo, In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2013 abstract
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    Animal welfare: Captivity effects on wide-ranging carnivores. Nature 425: 473-474. doi:10.1038/425473a abstract
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    Neurologic lesions in young captive lions associated with vitamin A deficiency. Aust Vet J 53: 187–189. abstract
  • O’Regan HJ, Turner A, Sabin R (2006)
    Medieval big cat remains from the Royal Menagerie at the Tower of London. Int J Osteoarchaeol 16: 385–394.doi: 10.1002/oa.835. abstract
  • Chandra AMS, Papendick RE, Schumacher J, Homer BL, Wollenman P (1999)
    Cerebellar herniation in captive lions (Panthera leo). J Vet Diagn Invest 11: 465–468. abstract
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    Vitamin A deficiency in captive African lion cubs (Panthera leo) (Linnaeus, 1758). Onderstepoort J Vet Res 42: 43–54. abstract
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    Lost populations and preserving genetic diversity in the lion Panthera leo: Implications for its ex situ conservation. Conserv Genet 7: 507–514. doi: 10.1007/s10592-005-9062-0. abstract
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    Inco-ordination and paresis in a captive lion (Panthera leo). J S Afr Vet Assoc 59: 81–82. abstract
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    Function of vitamin A in vertebrate embryonic development.J Nutr 131: 705–708. abstract
  • McCain S, Souza M, Ramsay E, Schumacher J, Hecht S, et al. (2008)
    Diagnosis and surgical treatment of a Chiari I-like malformation in an African lion (Panthera leo). J Zoo Wildl Med 39: 421–427. doi: 10.1638/2007–0157.1. abstract
  • Hartley, M. P., R. M. Kirberger, M. Haagenson, and L. Sweers. 2005.
    Diagnosis of suspected hypovitaminosis A using magnetic resonance imaging in African lions (Panthera leo). J. South Afr. Vet. Assoc. 76: 132–137. abstract
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About us
Merav Shamir
Rona Nadler

CT imaging
MRI Imaging